Today, women’s economic empowerment has become an essential component of economic development programming. However, it is now known that improvement in women’s economic situation often comes with heavy unanticipated costs to women. Violence in particular, is often a by-product, as the Do No Harm Research project and other similar research has shown. The Do No Harm Research project addresses the question of how to improve women’s economic agency without compromising their safety and wellbeing. Drawing on primary qualitative research in Jiwaka and Chimbu Provinces in Papua New Guinea, this research reports on the links found between women’s income generating activities and an increased incidence of violence against them. This research further reports on other problems that have risen due to a combination of changes in women’s economic status and more general changes in the culture.